The current word, “limousine”, is believed to have originated in the Limousin region of France. In German-speaking countries, a limousine is simply a sedan, while a car with an extended wheelbase is called a Pullman Limousine. In one way or another, the concept of a chauffeured vehicle has existed since the 1700s. Developed with the rich in mind, they started out as horse-drawn carriages, gilded in gold and dragged only by the best animals.
The word limousine is the feminine adjective formed from the word Limoges, which is the province of France that started it all. The notable feature that differentiates limousines from other vehicles (or in this case from wagons) is that the driver is in a compartment completely separate from his fare.